The Orchid Doctor Articles under the Heading Phalaenopsis

Phalaenopsis Comments
PHALAENOPSIS: Advantages of Growing Them The flowers last much longer than most others; they are more floriferous; they do not grow out of the pot; they need about the same climate as humans do; they grow quickly; they provide many colors; hybridizing goals and possibilities are many; good stud plants are reasonably priced; they are the easiest to sell. A88-21 0
PHALAENOPSIS: Adventitious Shoot Formation The nodes of flower spikes have buds which may develop into shoots; until a way to meristem phalaenopsis is found this offers a method for the rapid propagation of plants. A71-807+ 0
PHALAENOPSIS: After Flowering, the Spike Was Removed But No Branch Spike Followed Vegetative buds below the cut do not develop under hot, dry conditions; change to cool nights from 55 to 60 deg.F. for a week or two with humid conditions. A76-1102 0
PHALAENOPSIS: After Flowering, Tops Were Cut Off But Stumps Did Not Flower Advice: leave one or two leaves below the cut, keep the temperature from 58 to 70 deg.F. with high humidity and a light intensity of 1,000 to l,500fc. A75-192 0
PHALAENOPSIS: Bacterial Disease Erwinia cyprepedii is the probable cause; the recommended treatment for it, Natriphene, failed; try cultural practice as outlined fully; spray with Tersan 75 at 1 tpg, three times spaced fortnightly; refer to A69-340 0
PHALAENOPSIS: Bloomed Profusely for 12 Years Then Stopped New shoots removed did flower when repotted separately; this is not rare, the main plant is weak; try repotting it in new medium and remove some of the old roots. A70-916 0
PHALAENOPSIS: Breeding Line breeding reduces the range of variation; dispersion-breeding increases greatly the frequency of new and different forms; Phal. equestris and its three lines of breeding presented; refer to Wl1-192Since the whites and pinks have been "perfected" the trend has been back to the species, to increase the size but retain the color-intensity; many species and hybrids mentioned as slides shown in presentation. W11 -162They have a much shorter generation time than most and can be flowered in two years after pollination; P. Golden Sands has been rivalled by Phal. Golden Buddha and its emerging varieties, to produce new reds. A85-1308 0
PHALAENOPSIS: Breeding for Colour For the names of plants used in producing leading hybrids in whites, whites-with-coloured-lips, pinks, stripes, yellows and novelties, refer to SA84Sept-113 0
PHALAENOPSIS: Bud Blast Caused by Unvented Propane Heater Incompletely combusted gas could affect plants, which are susceptible to gas; check the burners. A85-872 0
PHALAENOPSIS: Buds Fall Off in the Home The chances are good that the atmosphere in the home in winter is too dry because of low relative humidity, so place the plants on pans of gravel ana water. A83-1156 0
PHALAENOPSIS: Buds Turn Brown and Fall Off, Under Lights Conditions may be too cold or too dry; try increasing humidity and in the winter enclose them is a plastic tent. A83-266 0
PHALAENOPSIS: Buds Turn Yellow In winter, if there is no ethylene contamination, the plants need more light. OB86-220 0
PHALAENOPSIS: Chill Treatment To get them to flower when everything appears favorable, lower the night temperature in the late fall for a spell to about 55 dF. A87-818 0
PHALAENOPSIS: Clonal Propagation From Flower Nodes How to do it in a media with anticontaminants added; for the technique or procedures, refer to AU82-21 0
PHALAENOPSIS: Commercial Culture A huge operation still contains pointers in its operation for the hobbyist: keep the roots wet on a sloped, water-soaked mat-table, use a fine potting mix of scoria and pine bark so capillary action through the pot bottom is constant (a no-no to some experts); leach heavily once a week; use no liquid fertilizer but use Osmocote and Fritted Trace Elements in the mix; use a base temperature of 26 dC (unexplained). NZ86-26 0
PHALAENOPSIS: Continuous Blooming Not Advised In South Florida summer conditions can be harsh and hot and there is a possibility the plant may dehydrate severely and damage may be irreversible; remove the inflorescence at the base. F82-55 0
PHALAENOPSIS: Cool Growing Them At 58 Deg.f. The mix is bark, moss and charcoal; repot at 18 months intervals from February to October only; use crock on end for drainage; lower temperatures are harder on whites, for pinks most rewarding; low temperatures cause flower to last longer but the flowering stems are bare at the bottoms; go easy on the watering, just damp and moist but never wet if you can distinguish between them; fertilize May to September. OR74-393+ 0
PHALAENOPSIS: Cultural Cautions Misting the leaves in hot steamy humidity can damage them; spent inflorescences can be cut back with a clean blade to a dormant node, and it can be left to store up energy to produce a new better blooming spike; they take 120 days from chilling to blooming and they can be artificially chilled to make them do so; the temperature is more important than the amount of light for blooming; water them always with room-temperature water. OIE87My-10 0
PHALAENOPSIS: Culture for Beginners Flower stems can be cut off above a node to induce branching; keikis can be cut off with roots and planted; provide a minimum temperature of 15 dC (60 dF) but preferably a bit higher for optimal growth such as 20 dC; air movement is vital; grow them in an open mix of pine bark; feed them weekly but not with Osmacote which burns their roots. NZ85-51 0
PHALAENOPSIS: Culture to Develop Sets of Leaves A lack of nitrogen or phosphorous makes leaves mature early; a bark media needs high rates of fertilizer to feed micro-organisms breaking down the bark. A71-1021 0
PHALAENOPSIS: Culture Up to Date They qualify as house plants but will not flower in a north window; instructions on what to start with, what and how to buy, where to grow" them, for starters. A88-14 0
PHALAENOPSIS: Cut Flowers They vary in thier lasting qualities because some stems do not take up water from a vase. A87-1037 0
PHALAENOPSIS: Deflasking When the flask is received, place it in a low light (700 to 900fc.) with a minimum night temperature of 19 dC for a week; pour luke-warm water into the flask to dis- solve the agar, use a looped wire to pull the seedlings out carefully; place them in flats in wet fine bark, or in two parts peat moss, one part coarse perlite and plant the seed- lings close together; water with a vitamin B-l solution (NAA) and Thiamine for two waterings and avoid fertilizers for sev- eral weeks. NZ85-54 0
PHALAENOPSIS: Flower (brown) Spots Caused by Pseudomonas cattleyae, it is spread by splashing water; control it with Physan at the rate of ittpg. and repeat. AH86-75 0
PHALAENOPSIS: Flower Forcing Year-round When the original flowering period ends, cut the top of the spike off just below the point where the first flower spike will mature and flower, then a secondary spike will appear and flower and it, also can be cut just below where the first flowed was attached, a third spike will grow and flower in about seven weeks. F81-102 0
PHALAENOPSIS: Flower Form Is Inferior A temperature drop to 45 deg.F. in winter checks growth and formation drastically. A76-895 0
PHALAENOPSIS: Flowering Controlled with Artificial Lighting It is neither effective or necessary because their response is to temparature of about 60 to 65 deg.F. at night and a daylength of from 12 to 16 hours; by pinching spikes just below the bottom flower stalk, new spikes are induced to produce flowers in 85 to 95 days and can be made to produce most from June to September. A66-408; A64-1074 0
PHALAENOPSIS: Flowering Time Controlled Pinch the flower stems just below the uppermost (first) vegetative buds; keep them cool and humid; they will branch anew and flower in 70 to 90 days earlier in a tempera- ture of 65 to 80 deg.F, rather than above that; some hybrids initi- ate spikes in the 60 deg.F. nights. A67-330; A64-1074 0
PHALAENOPSIS: Flower Stem Crooked and Discolored It is a sure sign of virus; destroy plant immediately. F77-16 0
PHALAENOPSIS: Flower Stem Initiation A night temperature of 60 deg.F, is low enough to do it. F72-90 0
PHALAENOPSIS: Flower Stem Removal To allow stems to remain on plant for more than one year is a mistake; it weakens plants; they do not make growth if in bloom; the turgidity of leaves may increase, F76-134 0
PHALAENOPSIS: Flower Stems, Cutting Them Off Do not cut back below the first vegetative bud; cutting the stem base stops their ability to flower again, with rare exceptions. A75-124; A78-812 0
PHALAENOPSIS: Growing Pots in a Pipe-rack on a Vertical Plane In South Flor- ida growers improve on the growth and flowering by racking pots on shelves of parallel pipes adjusted to take different size pots; all face south; pots are tipped slightly to shed water from plant crowns adequate space is necessary between "shelves" A67-407 0
PHALAENOPSIS: Growth Affected by Flowering Plants grow faster if the flower spikes are removed to divert development. A75-803Plants grow faster if the spikes are removed to divert development. A85-1435 0
PHALAENOPSIS: Husky Fiber Keep the medium moist, fertilize the plants monthly with a balanced fertilizer (1-1-1) and apply 60 to 65 dF (16 to 18 dC) as a minimum night temperature, with 1800 footcandles of light. A84-1061 0
PHALAENOPSIS: In the Home Most important is giving them enough light but if direct sunlight hits them after 10 A.M. they will develop sunburn spots, so stay short of full light. A81-27 0
PHALAENOPSIS: Keikis Production Those hybrids made with P. lueddemann- iana tend to produce keikis when grown too warm or with over- long days. A87-818 0
PHALAENOPSIS: Leaf Crinkling Causes include genetics, mechanical problems, or lack of water; check the roots, if they are dry and blunt-tipped you have a problem with soluble salts and if so, cut off the spike flush with the top of the pot, stop fertilizing and wait for new roots to appear. A84-286 0
PHALAENOPSIS: Leaf Pitting and Collapse It can be induced by exposure to cold temperatures of 35 to 45 dF (2 to 7 dC), the amount depends on length of exposure and the age of the leaves, old ones being less susceptible; mesophyll leaf collapse discussed ; if water is 25 dF colder than the leaf, damage may well occur. V/9-205 0
PHALAENOPSIS: Leaf Splitting Down the Center An unusual problem caused perhaps by low humidity or uneven watering, both lame excuses. A85-872 0
PHALAENOPSIS: Leaves as Indicators Better flower quality comes from plants with leaves of a rounder look. ODA78(l)-24 0
PHALAENOPSIS: Leaves Fall Off All evergreen plants lose leaves and it's not a problem if there is a constant, or increasing number per plant. A84-286 0
PHALAENOPSIS: Leaves; Under Lights Large splotchy green areas are caused by sprays of metaldehyde, at times. A80-110 0
PHALAENOPSIS: Life of Cut Flower-stems It can be prolonged to nine weeks, re-cut the stems under water at a 45 degree angle, change the water in the vase every four days and recut the stems each time; do not keep the flowers in the same room with ripening fruit or chrysanthemums. NZ86-29 0
PHALAENOPSIS: Light Requirements A very dark day in Illinois produces about 500fc; grow your phalaenopsis at 600 to 800fc. OD73-158Provide only a little less light than for cattleyas; use 1,500 to 2,000fc. A70-798 0
PHALAENOPSIS: Light Requiremnts The optimum growth was achieved in California using 1,250 to 1,500 fc. FR112 0
PHALAENOPSIS: Mesophyll Cell Collapse In early spring the cells collapse after exposure to cold; they show yellow depressed streaks, turn tan color and become pitted with black. AH86-108 0
PHALAENOPSIS: Micro-fungi Infection Perceived as a new disease in the U.S., it starts with ill-defined yellowing at the leaf edge, spreads inward, sometimes the leaf looks reddish-brown and dehydrated; then it moves to the next leaf; control it with Subdue, at the rate of 1 teasoon to 5 gallons of water plus a contact fungicide such as Bayleton Wettable Powder at four teaspoons to five gallons of water, then mix the two together and apply; the next day use another systemic, Funginex, at 2tpg. ; new leaves will displace the dead ones. OIE86-Sept-19; use Subdue three times at 10 day intervals at i teaspoon to five gallons of water-as a spray. OIE86Sept-19 0
PHALAENOPSIS: Minimum Optimums Temperature at night: 65 deg.F.; relative humid ity 60 to 70%; footcandles in winter: 500 to 1,000, and in summer: 1,500 to 2,000. AU71-135 0
PHALAENOPSIS: Node Culture for Propagation The base of the bract must be removed by cutting into the epidermal layer or tannin discoloration in the tubes can occur. A87-403 0
PHALAENOPSIS: Octoploid with 152 Chromosomes Its characteristics compared with a triploid were, a sturdy upright spike, flowers with extremely heavy substance, overlapping tepals; considered valuable for breed- ing with tetraploids. P68(l)-7+ 0
PHALAENOPSIS: One Out of Many Does Not Bloom Much more light than is normal, up to 2500 foot-candles will sometimes induce them to bloom. A82-1259 0
PHALAENOPSIS: Pitting of Leaves It resembles virus symptoms but it can be induced by submitting mature plants to temperatures of 35 tc 45 dF with the amount of pitting depending on the duration of the cold; young leaves are more susceptible. Hort. revs. vol.5, 290 0
PHALAENOPSIS: Plant Lets Growing At Base Cut them off and plant separately when their roots are from one to two inches. A78-812 0
PHALAENOPSIS: Pointers Remove the old flowering spikes close to the base of the plant to give them a chance to store carbohydrates for new flowering; before re-potting, wai t for a new leaf growth in the crown to indicate ability to re-establishitself well. F83-10 0
PHALAENOPSIS: Potting in Bark They will grow in gravel, sand, cork, lava, pumice, redwood chips, coconut hair, charcoal, foam rubber, etc., but bark is conventional; let it soak in water from three to 10 hours, sized according to the size of the plants; repotting gives young plants a boost even in six to eight months and they can be moved even when they are in flower; 24 hours after re-potting them give them water with vitamin B-l for two waterings, then go back to normal watering. NZ85-107 0
PHALAENOPSIS: Potting Medium Most Suitable It is that one which holds the right amount of moisture between waterings; the key is to get a condition which allows air to have access to the roots and still retain moisture; the combinations for such are numerous. A84-129 0
PHALAENOPSIS: Problems Galore And their controls, all the pests and diseases that have attacked them, ailments, virus infections and pests described and illustrated, with the current cult- ural or chemical control proposed; refer to A83-368 0
PHALAENOPSIS: Propagation in Vivo The application of one, out of the several now available, commercial hormone/lanolin paste to the nodal inflorescence buds can cause shoot development of plantlets; the most reliable procedure; for materials, methods, results,etc., refer to A84-1303; AU84-41 0
PHALAENOPSIS: Reasons for Growing They last longer than other orchid flowers; they provide more flowers than most; they have an upright habit which is an advantage in a small greenhouse, they are easy to grow; they grow fast; there are colors to suit everyone; hybridizing goals are plentiful; stud plants are reasonably priced; they are the easiest to sell; it bears repeating. A88-21 0
PHALAENOPSIS: Repot One Pot Inside Another If the bark is firm and there are aerial roots, train the roots down and place in a slightly larger pot and fill the space with bark. FR111+ 0
PHALAENOPSIS: Repotting Do it at the proper season, when the central leaf is growing; never do it in winter; the center leaf grows when the roots are developing. OD73-217 0
PHALAENOPSIS: Repotting Frequency Should be done every two years; use deep enough pots, set plants well down and periodically add bark as new roots appear; this way is good for three years. A67-713 0
PHALAENOPSIS: Shaded Yellow and Green If yellowing of leaves occurs on an unshaded leaf it is likely caused by too much light, if it appears overall, it could be low nitrogen or low nutrition that is causing it. A85-332 0
PHALAENOPSIS: Spikes Keep Producing Flowers At the Terminal End Many of them bloom almost continually when well grown and if the elongated spikes are unattractive cut them off near the base and new spikes will appear. A82-1259 0
PHALAENOPSIS: Spike Treatment Remove them from small plants until the plants are large enough to support substantial re-blooming; young plants can bloom themselves to death; nurseries leave the new flowers on so customers can asses the flower quality. A85-1435The large whites, pinks-and-whites, and whites-with-red-lips types usually have stems which dry out after a second flowering, so cut them off; if they are based on hybrids with Phal. amboinensis, Phal. fasciata, or Phal. violacea, etc. the spikes can flower for five years or so; combinations of types can perform either way. A84-286 0
PHALAENOPSIS: Spots on Leaves Clear, translucent pale yellow spots are poss- ibly bacterial disease; spray with Physan 20. A78-998; spray with Tersan 75 at 1/4 teaspoon to 75 quarts of water. A69-902 0
PHALAENOPSIS: Stem Propagation Method Select a healthy inflorescence with good live nodes and cut the the bottom of the stem on a slant li inch below a node, then swab or soak the stem in alcohol; with a sterile knife remove the bract covering the node, put a dab of keiki-paste on it; prepare a terrarium out of the black base of a 2-litre plastic pop bottle by first removing it and then filling it with sphagnum moss which has first been boiled 12 to 15 minutes, also boil a gallon of water, cool it, add a small amount of Best Grow or Superthrive to it, plus i teaspoon of regular fertilizer; squeeze-dry the moss then dunk it in the fertilizer solution and place it in the terrarium container with a layer of charcoal base; recut a slice off the bottom of the stem before inserting it, slant-wise partly into the bed of moss; cover the container with the clear top section of the pop bottle; for details refer to A87-369 0
PHALAENOPSIS: Stem Reduction Cut them back preferably about the first of September. A88-262 0
PHALAENOPSIS: Stems Bending or Breaking This could happen when the plants are grown too lushly, or in extremely low light,or with too high levels of nitrogen. F82-55 0
PHALAENOPSIS: Temperatures Day and Night Optimal data gathered from controlled experiments showed that 68 nights and the same for the days, 68 deg, F. was optimal; others were: Cattleya trianae, 58 to 68 nights to 63 to 86 days; Cymbidiums 58 nights to 68 days; paphiopedilums seed- lings 58 nights and 68 days and adult plants 54 nights to 62 to 68 days, all deg.F. A64-220 0
PHALAENOPSIS: Temperatures for Flowering It is induced by a period of cool nights at about 50 to 55 deg.F. A78-812; A78-998; from 55 to 60 deg. F. is advised. F74-68 0
PHALAENOPSIS: Temperatures Required to Induce Flowering Drop the temperature to 55 deg.F. for two weeks in August and September. A69-902 0
PHALAENOPSIS: Temperature Under Lights A winter night temperature of 58 dF is lower than usually recommended for them, but in a mixed collection a lower temperature will help other genera such as cattleyas to bloom, so slight alterations are tolerable as long as there is no sudden and severe temperature change. A83-1156 0
PHALAENOPSIS: To Flower Them Give them 55 to 58 dF at night for three full weeks, also an increase in light of 25% (to 1250fc. ), with more air circulation to cool the leaves. A88-155 0
PHALAENOPSIS: Under Lights, What Fertilizer Is Best? A formulation of 30-10-10 for bark is best; use at 1/2 tpg. and spray every two to four weeks, depending on the intensity of the lights. A74-114 0
PHALAENOPSIS: With Small Leaves It can be caused by root loss due to salt buildup, or genetic limitations, may cause stunted growth; repotting in a fresh mix and watering more seems to be called for. A87-1174 0
PHALAENOPSIS: "zada" Crosses In choosing seedlings pick the ones with green leaves, not those with the reddish-tinged leaves, if you want the darker colored flowers. ODA78(l)-24 0

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